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A large variety of records are found in modern offices : letters, receipts, invoices, contracts, vouchers, statistics, accounts, tax records, notices, circulars, minutes, price lists, catalogues, etc. Generally, a modern business house has an accountant who is responsible for maintaining the books of accounts. Similarly, there may be qualified statistician to collect relevant information at regular intervals form various departments and other sources and present them in proper form to the man management. The office is concerned with supplying whatever information is required as promptly as possible either by preparing records or making available existing records. Hence, all relevant papers and documents relating to the business must be kept in some order so that whenever they are needed they cab b produced for us. Filing and Indexing are two very important aspects of records management. Filing which the location of records cab be easily known.

Filling is the process of arranging and storing records to that they cab be easily available when required. The importance of filing in an organisation arises from the simple fact that a large number of papers and documents cannot be preserved and handled without proper arrangement. “Records remember where people forget: but if these records cannot be found quickly when needed, the labour involved in producing and storing them is wasted.” Nothing causes more chaos more chaos in an office than unsystematic records management. Still, this aspect of office activity does not always receive proper attention as it is not considered to be a productive work.

More Notes on  FILING 

Indexing is the process of determining the name, subject, or other caption under which the documents are to be filed. It is an important aid to filing. The chief purpose of an index is to facilitate the location of the required files and papers. If the files are arranged alphabetically or geographically in alphabetical order, an index is not necessary. Such arrangement of files resembles the arrangement of words in a dictionary which does not require a separate index. In other cases where alphabetical arrangement is not followed, and index may be used for the purpose of keeping a condensed record of the customers and correspondents with their addresses, telephone numbers, credit ratings, etc. But the basic purpose of an index or files is to present an orderly list of the correspondents of files titles in alphabetical or numerical order Indexes are used with ledgers and other register also.

More Notes on  INDEXING 
Handling correspondence is an important part of office activities. 'Correspondence' means communication in writing as between individuals and institutions on matters of common interest. It may consist of a letter, circular, notice or memorandum but whatever may be its form, th object of the correspondent or sender of the communication is to convey some message or information without personal contact. It is true that face-to-face or telephonic communication adds personal touch t the process of communication and may b a more effective means in some cases; but these are neither practicable nor economical in all cases. Generally, they prove to be more expensive in terms of money , effort and time. On the other hand, written communication office numerous advantages. It is less expensive than all other media. It allows opportunity for adequate thinking and is, therefore, free from errors to a greater extent. Th length and form of the correspondence can be easily adapted to the subject matter and situation. It is more convenient to send unpleasant communication through correspondence. Finally, it provides a written record or evidence of all transactions between parties. For all these reasons, the importance of correspondence has increased rapidly in all parts of the world and in all spheres of activity. Indeed, in th would of business, every letter dispatched is regarded as a silent ambassador of the business, and the reputations of a business depends to a considerable extent on th quantity of correspondence sent from its office. This is all the more so because handling and transmission of written communication has been made both prompt and economical through the introduction of automatic office machines and labour-saving devices and improved means of transport and transmission (with the help of wireless transmitters, teleprinters, etc.)

Office correspondence may b 'external' or 'internal'. External correspondence refers to correspondence with outside individuals, firms, companies and other organisations, whereas internal correspondence refers to correspondence between one individual or department and another within the some as well as correspondence with branch offices, or with the head office of the same organisation.

The nature and form of office correspondence depend upon the purpose for which it is written or the functions of the department where is originates. Accordingly correspondence may be of various types. They may, however, be classified into three broad categories: (1) Correspondence on routine matters like acknowledgment letters, inquiry letters, reply to inquiries, order letters, announcement, invitation and appointment letters, etc. (2) Correspondence involving personal or emotional factors, such as letters requesting, granting or refusing co-operation or favour, letters; conveying gratefulness, appreciation, congratulation or commendation, letters of introduction or or recommendation, letters of sympathy or censure, etc. (3) Correspondence on matters involving special appeal, e.g., sales letters, collection letters, adjustment letters, credit letter, etc.


The importance of furniture, equipment and machines in modern office management cannot be over-emphasized. Office work being mostly indoor desk-work, suitable furniture and other equipment must be provided to th office clerks so that they may remain seated comfortably while at work and may perform their work speedily and competently. In most modern offices, office machines of various kinds are also considered to be indispensable for the speedy, accurate and efficient performance of office work. Since th major office operations performed in a large office involve a lot of routine work of repetitive and monotonous nature, sped and accuracy in such work can be ensured only when th human brain is aided by mechnical devices. Office machines also effect great saving in cost of office management by increasing th output of work, thereby reducing the requirement of staff, and also help the management in keeping th employees happy and contented by reliving them of much of th pressure and monotony of work. Thus, on of th major problems of an office manager is to provide suitable office furniture, equipment and machines of the right type to the office worker.

Dictating Machines of office machines
Dictation to shorthand-writing or machine-writing stenographers and directly to the typist requires the simultaneous physical presence of the executive (dictator) and the stenographer or typist in one place.   Read Full Article Dictating Machines of office machines
Advantages of machine dictation
The principal advantages of machine dictation are  Read Full Article Advantages of machine dictation
Disadvantages of Dictating machines
There are also some disadvantages of using dictating machines  Read Full Article Disadvantages of Dictating machines
Mono Machines of office machines
While handling inward and outward mail, a lot of simple but repetitive and monotonous operation have to be carried out by the mail room clerks (vix; opening of envelopes, folding and inserting of letters, stamping, etc.).   Read Full Article Mono Machines of office machines
Miscellaneous Machines of office machines
Besides the important types of office machines described above a number of other labour-saving devices have come into us in big and modernized offices.  Read Full Article Miscellaneous Machines of office machines
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