there are some special considerations that put the business
enterprises in a class by itself from other social institutions.
The criteria of efficiency, productivity and accountability are not
so exacting and demanding in the case of other social institutions as
in the case of business. Leaving aside communist countries where
totalitarian planning takes place, the very survival of business
depends upon the fulfillment of objectives in the face of competition
and many other odds.
manager performs three types of work simultaneously-managing a
businest managing managers and managing workers and work. Almost
every decision or action a ,manager takes affects all these facts.
Managing a business is the task pertaining to the economic
performance of the enterprise and calls for the supply of goods and
services at acceptable prices. To be effective, a manager must be
creator rather than' a creature of the economy. Secondly, managing
mangers is necessary for making a productive organisation out of
human and material resources. It involves co-ordination of efforts
and functions of managerial personnel, setting goals for them and
directing their activities Finally, managing workers and work is
concerned with organizing and directing the employees and their work.
It calls for the evaluation of the worker both as a human being and
as a resource.
Managers are supposed to confine themselves to
managerial duties. But in actual practice, all managers do a lot of
non-managerial duties in addition to their managerial duties. The
lower an level of managers, the managerial content of the job
gradually shrinks and non-management duties in predominate. Even the
top job are not immune from non-managerial duties. To take some
examples, sales calls on important customers are usually made by the
sales manager, although such duties are not managerial in character.
The chief executive of a company is very often found to undertake
public relations activities by way of making public addresses, having
press conferences and going through other like non-managerial duties.
A supervisor at the bottom performs many non-managerial duties like
making reports, preparing invoices, operating equipment, and so on.