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Fayol's principles of management
Fayol evolved fourteen principles of management which may be briefly stated as follows


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1. Division of work. The object of division of work is to derive the benefits from the principle of specialisation which can be applied not only in technical work, put in all other work as well. Unlike Taylor, Fayol pointed out that division of work has its obvious limits.

2. Authority and responsibility. Authority and responsibility are correlated terms; responsibility is the essential counterpart of authority and they go hand. An ideal manger is expected to have official authority arising from official positions as well as his inherent personal authority. Such person authority is “compounded of intelligence experience, moral worth, ability to lead, past services, etc.”

3. Discipline. “Discipline is in essence obedience, application, energy, behaviour, and outward marks of respect” shown buy employees. “Discipline is what the leaders make it” through the observance of agreements, because agreements spell out to formalities of discipline. Three requisites of discipline are (a) good supervisors at all levels, (b) clear and fair agreements, and (c) judicious application of penalties of sanctions.

4. Unity of direction. This principle requires than employee should receive orders form one superior only. Dual command wreaks havoc in all concerns, “since authority is undermined, discipline in jeopardy, order disturbed and stability threatened.”

5. Unity of direction. Fayol discussed this principle of unity of direction in a different way from that of unity of command. While unity of direction is concerned with the functioning of the body corporate, unity of command is only concerned with the functioning of personnel at all levels. For the accomplishment of a group of activities having the same objective, there should be one head and one plan. “A body with two heads is in the social as in the animal sphere a monster, and has difficulty in surviving.

6. Subordination of individual interest to general interest. Common interest must prevail over individual interest, but some factors like ambition, laziness, weakness and others tend to reduce the importance of general interest.

7. Remuneration of personnel. As the prices of services rendered remunerations should be fair and satisfactory to both the parties.

8. Centralization. “Everything which goes to increase the importance of the subordinate's role is decentralization, everything which goes to reduce it is centralization.” The question of centralization or decentralization holds the key to the utilization of all faculties of the personnel.

9. scalar chain. It is the chain of superiors or the line of authority form the highest executive to the lowest one for the purpose of communication. The need for swift action should be reconciled with due regard to the line of authority by using “gang plank” or direct contact.

10. Order. This is a principle of organization relating to things and persons material order requires “a place for everything and everything in its place” and social demands the engagement of “the right man in the right place.”

11. Equity. Equity is greater than justice, since it” results from the combination of kindliness and justice.” The application of equity requires much good sense, experience and good nature with a view to securing devotion and loyalty form employees.

12. Stability of tenure of personnel. Stability of tenure is essential to get an employee accustomed to doing a new work and to enable him in performing it well. Instability of tenure is an evidence of bad running of affairs.

13. Initiative. The freedom to purpose a plan and to execute it is what is known as initiative that increases zeal and energy on the part of human beings. Since initiative is one of “the keenest satisfactions for an intelligent man to experience.” Fayol advised managers to secure as much initiative from employees as possible.

14. Esprit de corps. This is an extension of the principle of unity of command whereby team work is ensured. To maintain proper esprit de corps in the organization, personality politics and abuse of written and communications are to to be guarded against.

Related Articles
Systems Approach of Management Thought
Human relations Approach of Management Thought
Contribution of Henry Fayol of Classical Approach
Harrington Emerson Contribution of Classical Approach
Frank Gilbreath Contribution of Classical Approach
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