Division of work. The
object of division of work is to derive the benefits from the
principle of specialisation which can be applied not only in
technical work, put in all other work as well. Unlike Taylor, Fayol
pointed out that division of work has its obvious limits.
Authority and responsibility. Authority
and responsibility are correlated terms; responsibility is the
essential counterpart of authority and they go hand. An ideal manger
is expected to have official authority arising from official
positions as well as his inherent personal authority. Such person
authority is “compounded of intelligence experience, moral worth,
ability to lead, past services, etc.”
is in essence obedience, application, energy, behaviour, and outward
marks of respect” shown buy employees. “Discipline is what the
leaders make it” through the observance of agreements, because
agreements spell out to formalities of discipline. Three requisites
of discipline are (a) good supervisors at all levels, (b) clear and
fair agreements, and (c) judicious application of penalties of
Unity of direction. This
principle requires than employee should receive orders form one
superior only. Dual command wreaks havoc in all
concerns, “since authority is undermined, discipline in jeopardy,
order disturbed and stability threatened.”
5. Unity of
direction. Fayol discussed
this principle of unity of direction in a different way from that of
unity of command. While unity of direction is concerned with the
functioning of the body corporate, unity of command is only
concerned with the functioning of personnel at all levels. For the
accomplishment of a group of activities having the same objective,
there should be one head and one plan. “A body with two heads is
in the social as in the animal sphere a monster, and has difficulty
6. Subordination of individual
interest to general interest. Common
interest must prevail over individual interest, but some factors like
ambition, laziness, weakness and others tend to reduce the importance
of general interest.
7. Remuneration of personnel.
As the prices of services
rendered remunerations should be fair and satisfactory to both the
Centralization. “Everything which goes to increase the
importance of the subordinate's role is decentralization, everything
which goes to reduce it is centralization.” The question of
centralization or decentralization holds the key to the utilization
of all faculties of the personnel.
9. scalar chain. It
is the chain of superiors or the line of authority form the highest
executive to the lowest one for the purpose of communication. The
need for swift action should be reconciled with due regard to the
line of authority by using “gang plank” or direct contact.
Order. This is a principle of organization relating to things
and persons material order requires “a place for everything and
everything in its place” and social demands the engagement of “the
right man in the right place.”
11. Equity. Equity
is greater than justice, since it” results from the combination of
kindliness and justice.” The application of equity requires much
good sense, experience and good nature with a view to securing
devotion and loyalty form employees.
12. Stability of
tenure of personnel. Stability of tenure is essential to get an
employee accustomed to doing a new work and to enable him in
performing it well. Instability of tenure is an evidence of bad
running of affairs.
13. Initiative. The freedom to
purpose a plan and to execute it is what is known as initiative that
increases zeal and energy on the part of human beings. Since
initiative is one of “the keenest satisfactions for an intelligent
man to experience.” Fayol advised managers to secure as much
initiative from employees as possible.
de corps. This is an extension of the principle of unity of
command whereby team work is ensured. To maintain proper esprit de
corps in the organization, personality politics and abuse of written
and communications are to to be guarded against.