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SPAN OF MANAGEMENT






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OD and Management Development

Organisation development differs from management development. While the latter aims at developing the managers individually for the accomplishment of better performance in organisational setting, the former goes one step further and purports to change the entire organisational setting, the former goes one step further and purports to change the entire organisational climate where the mangers work.

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Limitations of OD

As a method of inducing change, organisation development has certain limitations. These are as follows:

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Need for OD

There are two major factors which have caused the use of OD as a technique for planned change.

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Characteristics of organisation development (OD)

According to Bennis, OD has the following characteristics

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Organisation development (OD)

Although a liberal interpretation of the words organisation development (OD) could refer to a wide range of strategies for organisation improvement, the terms have come to tame on some fairly specific meaning in management literature and in practice.

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Performance Appraisal in Indian Organizations

The formal and systematic appraisal of employees in India is a comparatively recent development.

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Forced-choice Rating of trait approach

Forced-choice method appraisal was developed by psychologists for the U.S. Army in World War II, and was subsequently adopted widely in industry.

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Graphic Rating Scales of trait approach

It is approach similar to that of the man-to-man system, except that the degrees on a factor scale are represented by definitions rather than by key men.

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Grading of trait approach

In the grading system, certain categories of worth are established in advance.

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Man-to-Man Comparison of trait approach

This system was used first by US Army during War World 1.

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Ranking of trait approach

The oldest and simplest method of formal rating is to compare one man with all other men and place him in a a simple rank order Ghiselli an Brown have described the technical features of ranking method.

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Trait approach

The trait approach, the first to develop in management history, led to the development of several kinds of ranking systems and graphic rating scales. Scale became quite widespread in the 1920's and late 1930's.

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Performance Appraisal Methods

Appraisal occurs where a formal system prevails. Many evaluations occur in the continuing relationships of a member and his subordinates. But periodic and systematic appraisals increase the probability of fairness accuracy, and completeness.

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Objectives of Performance Appraisal

A performance appraisal may serve the following objectives in the organisation.

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Importance of Performance Appraisal

The appraisal of performance is expected to provide answers to many of the questions in management of people in the organisation.

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Performace appraisal

Appraisal in the evaluation of wroth, quality,or merit. Appraisal should measure both performance in accomplishing goals and plans and performance as a manager.

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Wide Vs. Narrow Spans

A narrow span throughout an organisation causes tall or vertical structure, and a wide span causes a flat or horizontal structure.

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Supervision from Others of factors determining span of management

Classical theory suggests that each person should have only one superior; however, the trend is changing and organisation member receive some sort of supervision form other managers in the organisation such as staff personnel.

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Communication Techniques of factors determining span of management

The status of the communication technology and the effectiveness with which the technology can be used also affects the span of management.

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Use of Staff Assistance of factors determining span of management

As staff men share managerial work for reducing the workload of managers, subordinates can get advice and guidance from staff personnel.

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