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Masters of Business Administration Notes


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Decision-making Process

To solve a decision problem it is necessary that the decision-maker chooses the best of the available alternatives In the process, managers have to function in the following manner.

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Types of Decision

There are various ways of classifying decisions in an organisation. These base give five sets of decisions.

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Working of External Co-ordination

Decision-making is an integral part of human life. One has to take decisions in one's day-to-day life.

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Working of External Co-ordination

The external forces that usually exert a profound influence on the working of any business may be stated as follows

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External Co-ordination

No enterprise operates in a vacuum. As a social institution, it is affected by the ever-changing social influence and dynamic political and economic environment in which the enterprise has to work.

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Internal Co-ordination

Although the list of fundamental management functions does not include co-ordination yet managers discharge their functions in such a manner as to facilitate co-ordinations in the enterprise.

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Co-ordination-Internal and external

Co-ordination is the blending of all efforts, activities and forces operating within and without the enterprise.

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Technique of Co-ordination

Co-ordination in the total performance is achieved through co-ordination of efforts. As managerial functions are designed to get things done through efforts of other personnel, the managerial functions hole the key to co-ordination.

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Principles of Co-ordination

There are four important principles of co-ordination which every manager should take into account in discharging his managerial functions.

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Importance of Co-ordination

There are four important benefits of co-ordination which may be stated as follows

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Need for Co-ordination

There are some disintegrating forces that emphasize the need for co-ordination is any enterprise. The disintegrating factors which act as barriers to co-ordination may be put under the following four heads

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Co-ordination is the integration, synchronization or orderly pattern of group efforts in the enterprise towards the accomplishment of common objectives.

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Management Audit

Management audit is an evaluation of management as a whole. It is an independent and critical examination of the entire management process.

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Management Information Systems (MIS)

Information is the life-blood of an organization, particularly in the case of systems approach management.

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Preparation of PERT/CPM

The process involved in the preparation of PERT/CPM is as follows.

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Special control techniques

PERT/CPM, PERT (Programme Evaluation and Review Technique) was developed by the special project office of the U.S. Navy in 1958.

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Important of devices for controlling

Important devices for controlling overall performance include the following

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