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PRODUCTION METHODS






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Two broadly different circumstances

Work study is carried out in two broadly different circumstances;

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Technique of Work Study

The only sound and reliable approach to work study is on a basis of scientific method, but always with the full realization that it is a scientific study of human beings and not of inanimate machines of chemical actions which is being undertaken.

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What is the Need for Work Study?

Since work study or any king of time study is still unknown in many factories and some industries, and is looked upon with suspicion by operators, it is pertinent to ask why it is required and why it is not more universally practiced.

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Work Study

There has been some confusion in industry and in technical literature dealing with the measurement of work and payment by results, because of the indiscriminate use of terms like time study, motion study, rate-fixing, time setting and so on. Indeed, there is a good deal of confusion in the minds of men engaged in the work.

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Organizing for Production

Production management, to be effective, requires a sound organization structure for directing, controlling and unifying the production efforts towards a common purpose. The size and complexity of the structure are, however, dependent upon the volume of production and the system of production adopted.

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Job Security of production

As job and batch production possesses the intermittent characters of production, they cannot provide any job security. During bad times, workers particularly unskilled become out of job.

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Flexibility in Production of production

Both job production and batch production are capable to adjust their production facilities shortly just after the change in demand for products and without incurring heavy expenses.

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Organizational Structures of production

Functional organization is mostly adopted in case of job production and batch production.

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Industrial Application of production

The mechanism of job production applies in products of construction and manufacturing industries like buildings, bridges, special-purpose machines etc.

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Required Technical Ability of production

Both job and batch production require high skilled technical foremen and other executives. But managerial ability is of greater importance in the case of mass and process production.

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Cost of Manufacturing of production

The unit cost of manufacturing is the largest in the case job production, while it is the lowest process production.

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Size and Capital Investment of production

As already pointed out, the usual scale of operation is small in case of job production, medium in batch production, large in mass production and very large in process production.

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A Comparative Study of Different Systems of Production

A comparative study explaining the distinct features of the different systems of production may be made in the following way:

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Production-Control Mechanism for Continuous Manufacturing System

In continuous system of production, the production-control mechanism is not as elaborate and complex as that for intermittent system of production as continuous system involves making of a large portion of standard products in large quantities.

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Production Control Mechanisms for Intermittent Manufacturing System

In this system of production, the goods are manufactured specially to fulfil orders made by customers rather than for stock.

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Process Production

This system is an extended form of mass production in which manufacturing is carrie on continuously through an uniform sequence of operations. Process production calls for the setting up of automatic machines and equipments as far as possible.

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Mass Production

The system of production is used by companies where manufacturing is carried on continuously though not having always inform demand. Standardization is the keynote of mass production.

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Batch Production

It involves the manufacture of a group, batch or lot of products on the basis of customer's orders or expected demand for products. Both batch and job production are similar in nature and have almost the same features except in regard to the quantity of production.

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Job Production

In this system goods are produced to definite customer orders. As in this type there is no assurance of a continued demand for specific items and the manufacturing is dependent on the receipt of orders form customers, job production is of intermittent character.

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Systems of production

The systems of production may be discussed here as follows:

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